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12.3.

12.3.1. .

. . . , , . , , , .

. , . . - , .

12.3.2. .

. , 12.2, . , , .

(. . 1.2.2)

(12.2) (12.56), (12.9)

(12.10)

(12.11)

- , .

(12.8) (12.11)

(12.12)

. , ,

(12.13)

.

(12.14)

(12.14 )

, R, , ,

X , . . ( ).

12.3.3. .

. . 12.3.2 . , ,

(12.15)

. , - , (, ) , .

(12.16)

.

(12.17)

, R

(12.17 )

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